Connecting the spots

Notes on migration and environment from a geographical perspective

Roman Hoffmann

Roman Hoffmann

Roman Hoffmann is research assistant at the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU) in Vienna, Austria. Since 2012, he is a PhD candidate in economics at the University of Vienna, where he was employed at the Department of Economic Sociology before moving to the Wittgenstein Centre. He holds a degree in sociology and economics from the University of Munich. From March-May 2015 he was visiting researcher at the UP School of Economics in Manila, the Philippines.

Apr 19th 2017 by Roman Hoffmann

Learn from the Past, Prepare for the Future: Does Education Contribute to Raising Disaster Resilience?

Floods, droughts, and tropical storms have significantly increased, both in frequency and intensity in recent years. The burden of these events — both human and economic — falls in large part on low and middle-income countries with high exposure, such as coastal and island nations. In a recent study, with IIASA researcher Raya Muttarak, we found that education significantly contributes to increasing disaster resilience among poor households in the Philippines and Thailand, two countries which are frequently affected by natural calamities.

In these countries, public disaster risk reduction is important, yet public measures, such as investments in structural mitigation for large buildings or infrastructure, implementation of early warning systems, or planned evacuation routes and shelters, may not be enough to sufficiently protect communities from the devastating impacts of natural calamities. In addition, the undertaking of individual preparedness measures by households, such as stockpiling of food and water, strengthening of house structures, and having a family emergency plan, is crucial. Yet, even in areas which are heavily exposed to disasters, people often do not take any precautionary measures against environmental threats.

How people can be motivated to take precautionary action has been a fundamental question in the field of risk analysis. In this new study, which was based on face-to-face interviews in both Thailand and the Philippines, we found that prior disaster experience, which is influenced by geographical location of the home, is one of the key predictors of disaster preparedness. For those who were affected by a disaster in the recent past, education does not seem to play a significant role—they have already learned by experience. However, among those who had not previously been affected, educational attainment becomes a key determinant.

Even without having experienced a disaster, the educated are more likely to make preparations. In fact, educated people who haven’t experienced a disaster have preparedness levels that are as high as those of households who were only recently affected.

"Learn from the past, prepare for the future." Education as key for #Resilience. New Blog Post @TransReProject

Since education improves abstract reasoning and abstraction skills, highly educated individuals may not need to experience a disaster to understand that they can be devastating. This suggests that education, as a channel through which individuals can learn about disaster risks and preventive strategies, may effectively serve as a substitute for (often harmful) disaster experiences as a main trigger of preparedness actions.

In additional analyses, we investigated through which channels education promotes disaster preparedness by looking at the relationship between education and different mediating factors such as income, social capital and risk perception, which are likely to influence preparedness actions. We found that how education promotes disaster preparedness is highly context-specific. In Thailand, we found that the highly educated have higher perceptions of disaster risks that can occur in a community as well as higher social capital (measured by engagement in community activities), which in turn increase disaster resilience. In the Philippines, on the other hand, it appears that none of the studied mediating factors explain the effect of education on preparedness behavior.

 [...] [E]ducation, as a channel through which individuals can learn about disaster risks and preventive strategies, may effectively serve as substitute for [...] disaster experiences as a main trigger of preparedness actions."

Certainly, it remains important for national governments to invest in disaster risk reduction measures such as early warning systems or evacuation centers.

However, our study suggests that public funding in universal education will also benefit precautionary behavior at the personal and household level. In line with recent efforts of the UN to promote education for sustainable development, our study provides solid empirical evidence confirming the important role of education in building disaster resilience in low and middle-income countries.


Reference

Hoffmann, R. & Muttarak, R. (2017): Learn from the past, prepare for the future: Impacts of education and experience on disaster preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand. World Development (in press). Doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.016


Image credits: Photos by Kasagana-Ka Development Center Inc., 2013.